The role of zinc deficiency in endothelial dysfunction
a College of Pharmacy/Pharmacology and Clinical pharmacy Department, University of Duhok, Iraq.
b Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
c Cancer Metabolism and Epigenetic Unit, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
Endothelial dysfunction is the key element for developing cardiovascular disease. The crucial role of endothelium mandate searching for possible reversible causes of its dysfunction. Zinc is one of trace elements and essential micronutrients and enters in the component of more than 300 metalloenzymes which have roles in the degradation of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. Moreover, Zinc exerts antioxidant properties through different mechanisms including the induction of potent antioxidant metallothionein. The zinc supplementation can prevent endothelial dysfunction via several mechanisms such as the inhibition of the increase in NF-κB-induced inflammatory markers, the induction of an increase in eNOS expression levels and NO availability, the activation of PPAR receptor and the inhibition of TNFα activation-induced apoptosis. Thus, screening for zinc deficiency in general population especially, people with chronic diseases and with nutritional problems is highly recommended. This review describes the role of zinc deficiency in endothelial dysfunction.